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Celiac Disease
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Discovery:

1) A Greek physician named Aretaeus of Cappadocia, living in the first century AD discovered Celiac disease. He discovered it after observing people living with the symptoms and named it with a brief description of the disease. Then in the early 19th century a Dr. Mathew Baillie, probably unaware of Aretaeus, published his observations on Celiac based off of his patients.

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Symptoms:

2) Celiac disease and symptoms can appear at any age it comes from a dormant gene that is triggered by something such as surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection, severe emotional stress or sickness.The symptoms are mostly not treatable but avoidable by not ingesting gluten. With treatment, celiac disease is rarely fatal. However, untreated and unrecognized celiac disease may slightly increase the risk of developing intestinal lymphoma, a form of cancer.

In Children-

  • Abdominal bloating and pain
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Pale, foul-smelling, or fatty stool
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability and behavioral issues
  • Dental enamel defects of the permanent teeth
  • Delayed growth and puberty
  • Short Stature
  • Failure to thrive
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

In Adults -

  • Unexplained iron-deficiency anemia
  • Fatigue
  • Bone or joint pain
  • Arthritis
  • Osteoporosis or osteopenia (bone loss)
  • Liver and biliary tract disorders (transaminitis, fatty liver, primary sclerosing cholangitis, etc.)
  • Depression or anxiety
  • Peripheral neuropathy ( tingling, numbness or pain in the hands and feet)
  • Seizures or migraines
  • Missed menstrual periods
  • Infertility or recurrent miscarriage
  • Canker sores inside the mouth
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis (itchy skin rash)
  • And all the symptoms in children
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Image result for celiac disease
Image result for celiac disease

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Inheritance:

3) Celiac disease can be inherited in a recessive or dominant way depending on what genes the parents and person have. The genes are autosomal and some common haplotypes found in most patients are HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. Although the genes your parents have don't completely affect your risk. Both parents can have the genes for celiac disease, and their child can luckily only inherit the part of the genes that aren't connected with the condition.
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Environmental Factors:

4) Gluten is the environmental factor required to trigger the disease, other environmental factors, such as infections, may trigger changes in the small intestine of a person with these genes too though. Then, eating foods that contain gluten can trigger an abnormal immune system response. Over time, this response can cause digestion and absorption problems. having specific genes also increases your risk. You are more likely to have these genes if you have a first-degree relative (mother, father, brother, sister, son, or daughter) who has celiac disease.
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Commonality:

5) About 1 in 100 people — about 1 percent — have celiac disease, but Celiac disease is most common among Americans from the Punjab region of India. Celiac disease is significantly less common among U.S. residents of South Indian, East Asian and Hispanic ancestry. Men and women had similar rates of celiac disease when tested, no matter their ethnicity. Finally Celiac is more common in those with a family history of the condition.

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Testing:

6) For most children and adults, the best way to screen for celiac disease is with the Tissue Transglutaminase IgA antibody, plus an IgA antibody to ensure that the patient generates enough of this antibody to render the celiac disease test accurate. For young children (around age two years or below), Deamidated Gliadin IgA and IgG antibodies should also be included. All celiac disease blood tests require that you be on a gluten-containing diet to be accurate.

Others ways of screening include:
  • IgA Endomysial antibody (EMA): The EMA test has a specificity of almost 100%, but is not as sensitive as the tTG-IgA test. About 5-10% of people with celiac disease do not have a positive EMA test. It is also costly in comparison to the tTG-IgA and requires the use of primate esophagus or human umbilical cord. It is usually reserved for difficult to diagnose patients.
  • Total serum IgA: This test is used to check for IgA deficiency, a condition associated with celiac disease that can cause a false negative tTG-IgA or EMA result. If you are IgA deficient, your doctor can order a DGP or tTG-IgG test.
  • Deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP IgA and IgG): This test can be used to further screen for celiac disease in individuals with IgA deficiency or people who test negative for tTg or EMA antibodies.
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7) Celiac disease is strongly associated with specific HLA class II genes known as HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 located on chromosome 6p21. Approximately 95% of Celiac disease patients express HLA-DQ2, and the remaining patients are usually HLA-DQ8 positive. However, the HLA-DQ2 allele is common and is carried by about 30% of Caucasian individuals. Thus, HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 is necessary for disease development but is not sufficient for disease development; its estimated risk effect is only 36-53%. The majority of patients with Celiac disease have been found to carry the HLA DQA1*05, and DQB1*02 alleles, which encode the DQ2.5 molecule, and the expression of DQ2.5 genes is a significant risk factor for celiac disease. The DQ2.5 genes establish the different intensities of anti-gluten immunity, depending on whether they are in a homozygous or a heterozygous configuration.
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Works Cited:


https://celiac.org/celiac-disease/understanding-celiac-disease-2/celiacdiseasesymptoms/

https://celiac.org/celiac-disease/understanding-celiac-disease-2/what-is-celiac-disease/

https://medlineplus.gov/healthtopics/celiacdisease.html?utm_expid=.OB0LGBMlTHK33U6uv5Yg-g.1&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F

https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/celiac-disease

https://www.cureceliacdisease.org/wp-content/uploads/SU07CeliacCtr.News_.pdf
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