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Golgi Apparatus


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The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that can be found in eukaryotic cells
Also known as:
  • Golgi complex
  • Golgi body
  • Golgi

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How was it Discovered?

Camillo Golgi, an Italian biologist, identified the Golgi apparatus in 1897. He identified it with his microscope while studying the nervous system. The Golgi apparatus was named after Camillo Golgi, and the term 'apparatus' is a complex structure within an organization or system.



Below: Camillo Golgi

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-FUNCTIONS:

  • The Golgi apparatus receives proteins and lipids from the RER
  • Proteins and lipids are 'checked over' to see if the wrong chemicals were sent
  • Chemicals that should not have come in are packed in vesicles and sent back out

-Where do the products (proteins, lipids) go?

Destination 1:
Within the cell, to the lysosomes-
40-50 different biochemicals despatched from the Golgi apparatus in vesicles are destined for delivery to the lysosomes


Destination 2:
The plasma membrane of the cell-
group of secretions will act as chemical signals to other cells, and provide proteins for the repair and replacement of the plasma membrane.


Destination 3:
Outside of the cell-
Products produced in specialist secretory cells. They move from the trans Golgi network (TGN) towards the plasma membrane but accumulate in number before reaching the membrane.

A Shopping Center:
The Golgi apparatus acts a lot like a shopping center. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ('rough' means that it has ribosomes along the sides of it) delivers products to the Golgi apparatus, much like a truck might deliver food to a supermarket. The products are delivered in sacs called vesicles that go to a 'deliveries only' part of the apparatus. Then they are unloaded and checked over. Just like if food were delivered as badly bruised, the products that were not supposed to have been sent are sent back to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, repacked in vesicles. Everything that has been delivered the right way are processed and sorted, due to any 'labels' they have. You can think of this as like bar codes on items.Then they go to the specific places they need to, like the bakery or dairy department in a supermarket.


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What kind of cells have Golgi apparatus in them?

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  • There can be varying numbers of Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells.
  • Animals have fewer and bigger ones
  • Plant cells can contain as many as several hundred smaller versions.
  • Prokaryotes do not contain Golgi apparatus because the Golgi apparatus is a membrane-bound organelle (which prokaryotes do not contain, such as; mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum)


What type of cells require large numbers of Golgi apparatus?

-Plant cells require more Golgi bodies than animal cells. This is because Golgi apparatus can also be involved in the process of making the cell wall, which are only found in plant cells.



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Golgi apparatus can be used in the human body for the transportation and packaging of proteins. Muscle cells would use the Golgi apparatus to aid in the process of packaging and distributing protein so that the muscle can become stronger because of the protein. This is because proteins can be used in the human body to:
  • Strengthen the immune system
  • Repair cells/tissues
  • Form blood cells

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Does the Golgi apparatus work in conjunction with any other organelles? If so which ones and how do they interact?


Organelle
How the Organelle works in conjunction with the Golgi apparatus
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Takes in products from the ER
Lysosome
Sends products to lysosomes
Plasma membrane
Sends products to the plasma membrane

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Works Cited: