1. Hemophilia was first recognized by jewish rabbis ancient times in the Talmud, a collection of Jewish rabbinical writings. The Talmud stated that baby boys did not have to be circumcised if their two brothers previously died from the procedure. Also, an Arab physician named Albucasis, wrote of a family whose males died of bleeding after minor injuries. In 1803, a Philadelphia physician named Dr. John Conrad Otto wrote of hemorrhagic disposition existing in certain families. He recognized that it was heredity and affected males.


2. Hemophilia can occur anywhere across the human body. Most common symptoms are large, deep bruises, unexplained or excessive bleeding from cuts or injuries, pain swelling or tightness in the joints, and blood in your urine. The more extreme symptoms are vomiting, painful headaches, neck pain, extreme fatigue, and double vision. Symptoms of hemophilia can occur in all ages and it's usually chronic. Treatment usually includes medications, supportive care like IV fluids, and lab tests from specialists. All these ways help improve blood clotting in a hemophilic, but the disease is not curable yet. Hemophilia can be fatal if an injury isn't tended properly or at all.


3. Hemophilia has an inheritance pattern of X-linked recessive. This occurs on the X chromosome which is on

of the two possible sex chromosomes.


4. There are no known environmental factors that affect the occurrence of hemophilia.

5. Hemophilia effects mostly males, as it has an X-linked inheritance pattern. Hemophilia affects 1 in 5,000 male births in the U.S. and approximately 400 babies are born with hemophilia each year. 400,000 people worldwide are living with hemophilia and about 20,000 are living with it in the United States alone. All races and economic groups are affected equally.


6. Diagnosis includes screening tests and clotting factor tests. Screening tests are blood tests that show if the blood is clotting properly. Clotting factor tests, also called factor assays, are required to diagnose a bleeding disorder. This blood test shows the type of hemophilia and the severity.

7. The X chromosome of the sex chromosomes is responsible for hemophilia occurring. It is caused by a gene mutation on the X chromosome, which affects the blood clotting factor proteins. The mutation occurs in the factor VIII and factor IX genes.